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Threats confronted by EASL
The long term, irreversible Habitat degradation in many diverse areas such as the Dumbara (Knuckles Range) may endanger many habitat specific faunal groups such as Land snails, amphibians and fossorial relict reptiles. 

Forest-die back in Knuckles
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In Sri Lanka an appreciable number of reptiles, amphibians and mammals are killed by road traffic. Road kills are commonly found on roads running through forest areas. So far no measures have been adopted to minimize such losses.

Road kill of Sr i Lankan Pipe Snake
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Use of Agrochemicals and pesticides affects mainly land snails, amphibians and reptiles by decreasing their populations. In addition, fossorial animals associated with cultivated lands are destroyed by field preparation activities etc. The application of Weedicides, Insecticides & Chemical fertilizers etc. on vegetable plots, rice fields and even home gardens is increasing in the country. Climatological changes such as increasing temperatures and decreasing annual rainfall are trends seen in Sri Lanka in the recent past (Fernando & Chandrapala, 1991). In addition, soil degradation and erosion is a severe threat having an adverse effect on most fossorial animals that require cool, moist habitats.

Forest-die back in Horton Plains NP
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Snakes - both venomous and non-venomous, in particular are killed in Sri Lanka as a precautionary measure against snakebite, while other animals such as amphibians, lizards, skinks and spiders, are killed in Sri Lanka through fear, ignorance and superstition.

Only occasionally permission is given by the Department of Wildlife Conservation to zoos and researchers to study or export animals under the provisions of CITES. Nevertheless, there is evidence that Butterflies, Spiders, Fish, reptiles and mammals are often smuggled out of the island.. Although there are laws and enactments pertaining to the protection of flora and fauna, these are routinely violated.

 Wild meat was an essential component of the meal of forest associated people in Sri Lanka for millenia. Although those communities hunted animals from the forest continously for thousand years, there is non of the species has been extincted yet. It was a real phenomina of sustainabile harvesting. But, now a days the demand of urbanized people in cities for wild meat has largely increased. Thus people rented for hunt in the jungles around the country. This has damadged the sustainability of the forest associated people and now they are leagally banned on hunting.


Destructive fishing
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Ultimately for fauna, including EASL,  decrease in genetic diversity as a consequence of forest fragmentation and habitat isolation by permanent barriers such as latter man-made reservoirs and dams, highway roads, Plantations, other agricultural lands and urbanization, since they cause for the replacement of most stepping stone forest patches. As a result some populations are hardly come together for reproduction and the mixing up of genetic materials gets decreased. The genetic degradation is heavily effect on better viable populations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



A Rubber Plantation in Deraniyagala
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The most serious threat confronted by Sri Lankan Endemic Animals (EASL) is deforestation with consequent loss of natural habitats and their fragmentation. Extensive felling of forests that took place during the past few hundred years would have had a tremendous impact on the endemic fauna of the country. As the majority of endemic species inhabit wet zone of Sri Lanka they are under severe threat, because of highest human population density and rapid urbanization of wet zone.

A Tea Plantation in Mountain region-Rangala
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A Pinus Plantation in hills Ramboda
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Invasive plants and animals invade the unprotected environment in an accelerated rate and the subsequent mono-species dominance is a real threat to the EASL.





Uelex europaeus-Horton Plains NP
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Chitala ornata [Knife fish] Panadura
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Clidamia hirta-Sinharaja
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Post-harvesting paddy field fires in Kalmune
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Over hectares of forest and grassland is routinely violated, and set on fire (Forest Fire) mainly in the dry zone. This happens even within national parks such as Wasgamuwa, Ruhuna, Lahugala, Somawathiya etc. Such forest fires are a serious threat to the EASL, including their eggs, nests and home ranges. Short term economic goals of national and international companies has indirectly driven villagers to set forest fire. However, there are some areas in which annual fire seems necessary to maintain the ecosystem, and it is evident by the long standing history of the areas such as Bibila and Nilgala.










Agriculture practices in Nuwara eliya
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Forest Fire in Wasgamuwa NP
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Annual forest fires in Nilgala - Bibile
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In addition, other extensive agriculture practices, plantations, and human settlements also promote the fragmentation of land – a process that has accelerated during last decades owing to the rapid increase in the size of the human population. 

 

 


Agriculture practices in Nuwara eliya
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Kotmale Reservoir
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During more recent times (commencing from the early 1980s) vast areas of the dry zone and Dry zone monsoon forests were cleared once again under the Accelerated Mahaweli Project for agriculture and human settlement. The Accelerated Mahaweli Project was the biggest single human settlement scheme in recent years, leading to the replacement of about 200,000 hectares of natural wildlife habitats by agriculture (Baldwin, 1991). It is one of the largest irrigation projects to be carried out in Asia. Nevertheless, the program has also caused the destruction of considerable extents of wilderness habitats and the subsequent loss of biodiversity including EASL in these resettled areas. 

 

Victoria Reservoir
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Further danger lurks in the planned irrigation and hydropower electricity generating projects such as the Upper Kothmale, Moragahakanda and Kaluganga. These projects will cause the destruction of large areas of the hill zone and the lower parts of Knuckles forests, leading to the extinction of several local species populations. Hydropower electricity generating projects are commonly practiced methods in montane areas yet. Dams across streams and rivers would have a serious impact on freshwater fish fauna and the EASL.

 

Overspreading plantations in to sensitive habitats . Click here to Enlarge
Land clearance for development in Badulla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Click here to Enlarge

Value of conservation neglected with development.. . . . ... . . ..... click here to Enlarge

 

 

 


Constructions across water bodies-Mahaweli River
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Road kill of Horned Lizard in Horton Plains NP
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Road kill of Rough sided snake in Horton Plains NP . . . . . . . . . . Click here to Enlarge

 

 

Illegal logging
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Illegal logging
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Illegal fish exports
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Wild meat
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Wild meat
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Improper garbage dumping
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Improper garbage dumping
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"Ellangaawa" A unity care for community & Nature | No:1/112, Hapugoda | Ambatenna | Sri Lanaka. 20136.